Saturday 30 November 2013








Ms. Sneha Patel,
Departmental Library
Communication Skills


Friday 29 November 2013


                   10. Thanksgiving Words With Bizarre Origins

Here now, the uncommon origins for ten common Thanksgiving words.

10.Mirth And Merriment

Both mirth and merry come from an Old English word meaning “joy”
 or “pleasure.” These words are themselves derived from an 
older German root meaning “short-lasting.” Thus, something merry 
is short-lived—although the consequences may not be.

In the 17th century, the word “merry” could include decidedly earthier connotations
, such as a merry-bout of sexual intercourse. And sometimes a merry-bout
 resulted in a “merry-begot,” an illegitimate child. However, since 12 percent
 of all 17th century babies died in their first year, perhaps a merry-begot 
was a short-lived pleasure after all.


"I have known
 the shooting star
 to spoil a night’s rest;
 and have seen a
 man in love grow
 pale, and lose
 his appetite, upon
 the plucking of
 a merry-thought.”
 -The Right 
Honorable Joseph

The word merry also gave us the merrythought, which we now call
 the wishbone. The custom of pulling apart the wishbone dates back 
at least to Roman times and may have evolved from the
 Etruscan practice of alectryomancy, the practice of divining
 the future using rooster clavicles.
According to Roman legend, the Etruscans selected the wishbone
 because its “V” shape resembled a human groin, the repository 
of life. Thus, the wishbone was seen as an appropriate way to
 unravel life’s mysteries. The resemblance of the bone to a
 woman’s pudenda has also been said to be responsible for it
 being given the name “merrythought.”
In the 17th century, it was sometimes thought that whoever ended
 up with the longer piece of the merrythought would marry first, a 
clever play on words. Alternatively, it was believed that the person 
with the longer piece would get whatever wish he chose, a custom 
firmly entrenched by the 19th century. English settlers brought the
 practice with them to the New World, and we still pull the wishbone
 apart today.


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Whether it’s called a merrythought or a wishbone, the proper term 
for the bone we pull apart on Thanksgiving is “furcula.” It comes from
 the Latin furca, meaning “pitchfork.” Before becoming the word for
 what was then a two-pronged utensil, the term was used in England to
 refer to a forked instrument used by torturers, so you might want to be 
careful about saying “stick a fork in me, I’m done” after you’ve eaten too
 many mashed potatoes.

Although the fork seems like an obvious tool, it was not used for eating
 until the eighth or ninth century, and then only by the nobility in parts of 
what is now the Middle East. Popular legend has it that Catherine dei 
Medici brought the fork to France from Italy when she married King Henry I 
of France in the 16th century. However, the use of the word to mean a table 
fork is first attested in English some hundred years earlier.

Latin may also have given us the word “beer,” from bibere,
 meaning “to drink.” But it may be that beer derives from an old 
Germanic word for barley, the grain from which it is generally
 brewed. This is questionable, however, since the native 
Germanic word for beer was aluth, from which we get our English
 word “ale.”
The origins of aluth, in turn, are unclear. One possibility is that it
 came from an Indo-European root meaning “bitter.” Another is that 
it came from alu—a root with connotations of sorcery, magic, or 
possession—so when your obnoxious Uncle Al spills a frosty one 
on you during the game, just smile and tell him it’s enchanting. Ale
 also gave us the English word “bridal,” because in the Middle Ages, 
ale was a noun that meant a feast. A bride ale was literally a feast in
 honor of a marriage—followed, no doubt, by a merry-bout.


Over time, the “thank” form of “think” evolved to refer to favorable 
thoughts and, eventually, gratitude. So if you think the turkey was 
 be sure to express your thanks—otherwise, your hostess may 
think her
 meal went thunk.


While we are thinking merry thoughts, let’s take a look at the word
 “Thanksgiving” itself. The “thank” in Thanksgiving comes from
 the same Germanic root as “think”—as in think, thank, thunk, the
 latter of which was once proper English. Although we no longer
 follow this pattern for the word “think,” we still use it with the verbs
 “drink” and “clink.” Note, however, that the “thunk” form of “think” 
is unrelated to the word “thunk,” meaning “thud.” That word is 
mid-20th century blend of “thud” and “clunk.”



The first Europeans to see what we call a turkey were likely Christopher
 Columbus and the crew of his fourth American voyage. They called the
 animalgallina de la tierra, or “land chicken.”
The word “turkey” is short for “Turkey cock,” a term that originally referred 
to the guinea fowl. The origins of the word “turkey” to refer to a bird that 
is native to America are uncertain, but it may be because it was once
 brought to England via Turkey. Pilgrims to the New World became 
confused by the similarity of the land chicken to the bird they knew as a
 turkey, so it was named by mistake. Though turkeys were common
 fare for early American settlers, they didn’t become part of the
 Thanksgiving tradition until around the mid-19th century.


For many people, the herb sage is associated with Thanksgiving, 
but historically, sage’s primary use has been medicinal. This is reflected
 in its botanical name, Salvia officinalis. In Latin, salvus meant “healthy,”
 a word that also gave us the English “safe.” Sage has been used to
 treat inflamed gums, excessive perspiration, memory loss, depression,
 sore throat, swollen sinuses, acne, toenail fungus, hot flashes, 
and painful menstruation, among other things. Because sage is also used 
to combat diarrhea, gas, and bloating, it’s the perfect herb for a holiday 
that often results in gustatory overindulgence.
The word “sage” meaning “wise” is unrelated to the herb. That sage comes
 from a Latin root meaning “to taste.” Taking all three meanings of the
 word literally, sage in your Thanksgiving dinner is tasty, healthy, and wise.


Cranberries grow not in water, as commonly believed, but in bogs. 
They are sometimes referred to as bogberries or, less accurately, as
 fenberries or marshworts. Cranberries are, however, often floated in
 water during harvesting, which makes them easier to harvest and
 increases their exposure to sunlight. More sunlight helps cranberries 
develop greater concentrations of anthocyanins, the phytonutrients
 believed to give cranberries antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties. 
Cranberries are a popular treatment for urinary tract infections and believed
 by some to prevent cancer.
No Thanksgiving 
 would be
without some form 
cranberry sauce or
The cran- in 
the bird called a crane.
 This may be due to the 
resemblance between
 the plant’s stamen and the
 beak of a crane.


Today’s commercial marshmallow candies don’t actually
 any marshmallow. Instead, commercial marshmallows are
 with gelatin, thereby negating the candy’s original healing
 properties an
d making them unsuitable for vegetarians.
Marshmallow has been used for more than 2,000 years as
 well as food. The root and leaves contain a gummy substance 
mucilage. When mixed with water, the mucilage forms a
 slick gel, 
which coats the throat and stomach and reduces irritation.
 In the 19th 
century, people would take juice from marshmallow roots
 and cook it 
with egg whites and sugar. The cooked mixture was whipped
 into a
 foamy meringue and allowed to harden, creating a medicinal
 candy to soothe sore throats.
While cranberries 
don’t actually 
grow in marshes, 
the plant known 
as the
 marsh mallow,
 or marshmallow, 
 the Greek 
althein, meaning “to heal.”



Tofu, for those of you who don’t know, is fermented soy
 bean curd. It 
is valued for its high protein content, as well as its ability to
 flavors from other foods. Tofu is probably best enjoyed without
of the origins of the word—literally “rotten beans,” which
 to us from Chinese dou(“beans”) and fu (“rotten”).And so as
 not to
 leave out the vegetarians, we conclude with Tofurky, a turkey 
created in 2000 by Turtle Island Foods. Tofurky is madefrom tofu
, wheat 
gluten, oil, and “natural flavors,” which include certain yeasts that
Tofurky a “meaty” taste.Photo credit: What’s Cooking America.

And on that merry note, Happy Thanksgiving.


Ms. Sneha Patel

Wednesday 27 November 2013

Learn it Loud – with Gazal Pasnani

Audio books have become a 3rd gear of learning today. Audio books offer new English learners an experience that is similar to adult-child read-aloud time. Hearing a book read on tape helps one to see how the words on the page can come alive in a fluid, expressive way. It helps the learner focus on the sounds of words read without interruption and provides a model of fluent reading. Stories on tape help to grasp the rich and various ways in which language distills and conveys meaning. In addition, exposing one to a range of narrators and their different styles of reading will deepen his grasp of the reading process.
“37 percent of people say they’ve listened to an audio book, and the medium continues to become an important substitute for old-fashioned reading.” (Forbes)

English audio books are a great resource for students. As you are beginning to acquire and build your language and reading comprehension skills it will be important to also learn pronunciation and to understand the language as it is spoken. You can find a variety of English audio books online for free or for a small fee. Depending on the type of stories you are interested in—you will need to search for topics or authors that will provide you with an engaging experience.

When you listen to books you are able to follow along with the text and hear how an English speaker will pronounce different words you are unfamiliar with. This is the best way to learn new vocabulary and how to use specific grammar skills when speaking, reading and writing. English audio books provide an easy way to listen to a variety of action packed stories and then practice your reading comprehension skills. Once you have listened to the English audio book—you should be able to answer questions about the story that will reflect your understanding of the material. Once you are able to do this accurately—you should be able to move up to the next level.

Overall, an English audio book is the perfect solution when you are learning the English language. Not only will you be able to practice your comprehension, but you will also learn the correct pronunciation of many everyday words. 

Researchers have shown that our mind captures the heard things more as compared to read things. So, mp3 audio books can be a great learning material. Audio books listened during sleep are often more effective.

Some listeners really appreciate visually reading along as they listen, while others want to separate their efforts. Learners can experiment with both approaches so each one can identify which method works better for him or her. Some new English learners actually prefer pre-reading the print text before listening, while others prefer to listen to a chapter before visually approaching it. An important developmental aspect of adolescence is learning what engages you and how to do your best; audio books present an excellent opportunity for youth to analyze their own reading preferences and language strengths.

Get started today - focus on the sounds of words read.

Listen carefully and answer the following question:

1. Who was Harvey Maxwell? Why was he so busy?

2. Henry Maxwell's secretary's name?

3. What is Mr. Pitcher's designation at Maxwell's office?

4. What is the Climax of the short story “The Romance of Busy Broker” By O Henry?

**Below is a link to PDF of the short story “The Romance of Busy Broker” By O Henry

Aloha For Now

Gazal Pasnani

Monday 25 November 2013

Take Care of Ur 20s...............


·        NEWS
·        LIF
·        MONE
The 20 Mistakes You Should not do in Your 20s

Your 20s compose undoubtedly the most pivotal time in your life. While there are plenty of temptations and distractions, the decisions you make here are truly what dictate your future, as the weak fail and only the strong survive.
Do you have what it takes to become a monumental success? Or will you live out a life of mediocrity? The choice is up to you. While many think they have all the answers and the keys to success, we have seen those people make the same pitfalls too many times before.
This is the time for you to hustle, scrap and fight for the life that you want for yourself. You manifest your own destiny during these crucial years.
Every move you make is a test. These are the 20 Mistakes You should not do in Your 20s.
20. Working for money, not for building your dreams
Never do anything just because it’s convenient for you. Look to challenge yourself and build your own dream instead ofbuilding someone else’s. Even if it doesn’t exactly make sense now, create something with great value so you can cash out big.
Always look to the future and never for immediate compensation. What are you going to do with those weekly wages anyways? Stop being so entitled and pretending like you deserve cash, prizes and vacations just yet. You will soon realize once you’ve made it that making money doesn’t make you happy. It’s the journey.

19. Thinking that this is the right time to fall in love
While all of your friends might be doing it, don’t fall into the trap of a relationship. Sure it seems like the right thing to do, but your 20s are entirely too crucial for your personal growth for you to be focusing on fulfilling the wishes of another individual.
Not only does it make you complacent with where you are in life, but it makes you boring. When your business is at stake and your future is resting on your shoulders, the last thing you need is to be bogged down by an insecure lover rushing you home.
Get out there, meet new people, test the limits and have fun. It will take you to the places you’ve only dreamed of going.

18. Trying to act like the man rather than learning how to become one
Instead of going overboard on bottles in the club, spend that time focusing on your career.
Every second counts and if more time is spent pretending to be the person you want to be instead of becoming that man, then you’ll sink in quick sand without even knowing it.
A real man is willing to make sacrifices. If you aren’t down to put in the work, then please don’t act like you are. You can enjoy the success when you actually attain it.

17. Making friends instead of earning trust
The in-crowd may be tempting, but you’ll probably fall victim to surrounding yourself with social climbers. We know you feel entitled to celebrate, but please relax. It’s never attractive when you act as though this is the last time you’ll ever see this in life.
Make connections with people based on trial and error, not presuppositions and drunk ranting about what they can do for your business.
If you ever want people to take you seriously, then you have to take them seriously. Just because you think you trust someone doesn’t always mean you can. Heed any red flags in the past before jumping into any kind of venture with them.

16. Not caring because you only live once — that’s for fools
We all are guilty of irrational decision-making in our 20s. Fast people and fast times with money in your pocket always lead to over-extending yourself. Get focused and lock into what you’re supposed to be doing. If you don’t know what that is, then you better figure it out ASAP.

15. Making all your wants, needs
The expensive sneakers should not be on the list of your needs. Setting the foundation for your business and team is far more important than updating your wardrobe.
Distinguish between what you want and what you actually need. Make sure your priorities are in tact or you will lose your track.

14. Forgetting that family comes first
Those who supported you before anything deserve to be taken care of when you reach your success. If you aren’t doing this for the ones you love, then you’re not doing it right. Family comes first, no matter what happens. If you work for whom you love instead of just yourself, you will get far.

13. Blaming anyone else but yourself for anything in life
Hold yourself accountable for everything. At the end of the day, all you have in the world is yourself — so go hard. Don’t look to anyone for answers and instead of making problems, create solutions.
Whether it was that job you wanted, the funding you needed or the love you think you can’t live without, there is no one that can be held accountable in this universe except for you.

12. Getting comfortable like you actually deserve down time
Unless you’re chilling with Victoria’s Secret models in Monaco this weekend, you shouldn’t even be thinking about taking a break anytime soon. You need a vacation?
What have you accomplished? Mark Cuban spent seven years building out his first business before he even took a break. Don’t get lazy now.

11. Sticking with jobs that didn’t teach you anything
A bad job is like an unhealthy relationship. Truthfully, the only reason you’re there is because it is the safest and easiest thing you know.
Any job or relationship that allows for you to get comfortable should be avoided at all costs. The last scenario you could ever want is becoming like the rest of those miserable 40-somethings faced with weekends of minivans and soccer practice.

10. Following the crowd instead of forging against it
You can be aware of the trends, but never follow them. If all your time is spent trying to adjust to your surroundings, you’ll get lost in the crowd all the more easily.
Success and greatness are constructed by trendsetters themselves, not those who latched on to what’s currently trending. We hope that you don’t have any aspirations to look like your favorite rapper. Temptation to be influenced by those who you aspire to be like is easy, but no one finds his or her calling while following in the footsteps of another.

9. Failing to energize those around you
Although you may sometimes think there is a lack of talent in your networks — this is never the case. It is your sole responsibility to inspire, encourage and drive those around you to succeed.
Failing to do so only confirms that you fall victim to that which you accuse others of. Change and greatness can be sparked everywhere, but bring it upon yourself to trigger it.

8. Thinking you need to stop learning and growing
You have more zeros at the end of your bank statement and stamps in your passport than you had ever imagined. Don’t consider this your victory lap, but rather as a taste of greatness. Do you live to enjoy the moments you dreamed of or a lifetime of unimaginable success?
The common misconception that once things are in your favor, you no longer have to put in the 3:00AM work hours is a dangerous problem. The fewer nights that you’re willing to put in the work, the fewer opportunities you will have to celebrate your achievements in the future.

7. Thinking that anyone will ever pay you back
Your 20s will be accompanied with a slew of poor investments by both you and those around you. Whether rich or poor, there will always be someone in your circle that will need a helping hand. If you ever think you’re going to see that money again, you’re sorely mistaken.
If there were a plan of action and re-investment, then the truth is that you will not see $1 back. Times are tough, especially in your 20s and finding a route back to financial freedom is often seen only when winning the lotto or signing your first deal with Ca$h Money Records.
Of course miracles do happen, but the probabilities that you’ve essentially given the money away are far too high.

6. Investing in relationships with the wrong values
Your love life is an investment — and the smarter the deals you execute, the savvier of an investor you become. Instead of navigating through an ambiguous investment in which you shower your lover with cash and prizes for existing, make sure he or she will demonstrate positive returns. Your love life should have a solid ROI.

5. Holding on to friends that waste your time and add no value to your life
You’ll be sucked down into the abyss right with them if you don’t cut the fat of the group. Family and friends could have been great to you as a child, but if they no longer hold the value and inspiration that is needed for you to thrive in life, then cut them loose.
The only individuals you should be surrounding yourself with are those that challenge your ideas and motivate you to find the next solution to your problems. No, not the pessimistic who shoot down your ideas with their negativity, but rather the ones who genuinely want to see you succeed no matter what you do in life.

4. Forgetting about the piggy bank and spending every dollar you have
If our check is for $9, then we’re most likely spending $30. Between credit cards, school loans and every other avenue for attaining a quick dollar, our need for immediate gratification is worse than ever.
The truth is it’s about making more money, not saving it. But at the same time, if you have no means for expanding your revenue channels, then you must be able to save a few dollars here and there. No one likes to have to walk to work because he blew every dollar at LAVO.

3. Not wrapping it before tapping it
If you don’t want to have a child then you better limit your excuses. As vulgar as it may sound, sometimes there are only a few options in life, so you must avoid all potential margins of error.
The road to success is not paved with having responsibilities of children and your future wife to be. This is a somewhat lonely journey that you must take by yourself and those you love will be able to celebrate with you after.

2. Dating unstable people with mommy and daddy issues
We need to control the invincibility we all feel when it comes to both men and women. Whether she’s a stripper or he’s a frat bro, we feel the need to be the knight in shining armor for our lovers.
As chivalrous as this may seem, we hate to break it to you, but you will never be able to change anyone. By setting yourself up for a losing battle, you’ve only ensured your misery for the next few months. She’s clingy for a reason, don’t be her Dr. Phil. And if he doesn’t have ambition now, he never will.

1. Never Forget the Principle of Karma:
Whether it’s burning bridges with people you loved, stealing your friend’s girlfriend or plotting against an ex-partner, we must always remember the law of Karma.
There is nothing more true than the fact that whatever goes around comes around, and you are not immune to the cosmic forces that be. We’re not asking you to go on your Mother Teresa pilgrimage, but don’t be surprised when reality catches back up with you and brings you to your knees. Be a good person. You’ll get further in life.

- With Best Wishes............

Deepali Agravat